Coordinating & Subordinating Conjunctions
Conjunctions help join words or groups of words in a sentence, and they can take different forms as coordinating conjunctions or subordinating conjunctions.
Coordinating conjunction link parts of any given sentence (phrases, or clauses) that are independent or equal using the following: and/or/but/so/yet/nor/for.
- Use ”and” if you want to mean “in addition to”.
- Use ”or” to show a choice between two things.
- Use “but” to connect two different things that do not agree.
- Use “so” if you want to declare the last part of the sentence as result.
- Use ”for” can be used in place of the word (because).
- Use “yet” to talk about contrast with something.
- Use ”nor” to show a set of negative possibilities.
The coordinating conjunctions are also known as the F.A.N.B.O.Y.S:
- F = For.
- A = And.
- N = Nor.
- B = But.
- O = Or.
- Y = Yet.
- S = So.
- I bought vegetables and fruits at the store.
- We are going to the zoo and the aquarium today.
- Do you want to eat inside or outside?
- I’m a night owl, but she is an early bird.
- I want to clean the house, but I am very tired.
- This song has been on my mind, so listen to it again.
- My friend is partying, so I am bringing him a gift.
- He wants to become a leader, for there is no one to lead them.
- She took chemistry for it is her favorite class material.
- He prepared very well, yet he could not make it to the finales.
- He failed multiple times on his experiment, yet he never gives up.
- I cannot be at the meeting nor can Adam.
- She did not pass the first phase nor the last one.
Use subordination to join two sentences together when one idea is less important (subordinate) to the other using:
|Than||She is more clever then all of us.|
|Rather Than||I will have tea rather than coffee.|
|Whether||You must decide whether you will go by train or by plane.|
|As Much As||I eat as much as you.|
|Whereas||Ahmed is tall and blond whereas his brother is short and has dark hair.|
|That||She went to the market that she likes the most.|
|Whatever||He is always honest about whatever he says.|
|which||The car which I drive is old.|
|After||Mary went out with her friends, after she had done her homework.|
|As soon as||A baby elephant can stand as soon as it is born.|
|As long as||You will succeed as long as you do your homework.|
|Before||She always feeds her cat before she goes to school.|
|By the time||By the time he arrived the party has begun.|
|Now that||You can go and play now that you have finished your homework.|
|Once||Once you learn it, you never forget.|
|Since||Ahmed is a teacher since 2010.|
|Till||James lived with his parents till he was twenty-five.|
|Until||You can stay on the bus until you reach London.|
|When||They went to the beach when the weather was hot.|
|Whenever||Whenever I go out, I always take my keys with me.|
|While||While I was walking to the market, I met my old friend.|
|Though||Though it was raining, she went out.|
|Although||Although the kitchen is small, it is well designed.|
|Even Though||Even though he is a millionaire, he lives in small flat.|
|Who||The person who made this mess needs to clean it.|
|whoever||Whoever leaves last should turn off the light.|
|whom||He is the man whom I meet in Greece .|
|whomever||He was free to marry whomever he chose.|
|whose||She is the student whose handwriting is the best in my class.|
|where||This is the park where we played.|
|wherever||Wherever you go in the world you will always find someone who speaks English.|
|if||If you leave now, you will miss the game.|
|Only if||You can have access to the library, only if you are a university student.|
|Unless||You won’t succeed unless you work hard.|
|Provided that||I was allowed to go off by myself, provided that I promise to be careful.|
|Assuming that||I hope to go to college next year, assuming that I pass my exams.|
|Even if||Even if you have already bought your ticket you will need to wait in line.|
|In case||I have my umbrella with me in case it rains.|
|Lest||Study hard lest you should fail|
|How||She taught him how to play the piano.|
|As though||They look as though they’re heading for divorce.|